1. The Geometry of 1-Based Minimal Types (dvi) or (pdf) (with Byunghan Kim) (published in Transactions of the American

Mathematical Society, vol 355, No. 10, (2003))

2. Constructing the Hyperdefinable Group from the Group Configuration (dvi) or (pdf) (with Byunghan Kim and Jessica Young)

(published in Jornal of Mathematical Logic, 6, (2), (2006))

3. Infinitesimals in a Recursively Enumerable Prime Model (dvi) or (pdf)

4. Zariski Structures and Algebraic Curvesj(dvi) or (pdf) or ohjgg

5. A Non-Standard Bezout Theorem for Curves (dvi) or (pdf) (published in Birational Geometry, Kaehler-Einstein Metrics

and Degenerations, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics), (2005).

6. A Theory of Branches for Algebraic Curves (dvi) or (pdf) (older version)

7. A Theory of Divisors for Algebraic Curves (dvi) or (new version) (in progress)

8. Some Geometry of Nodal Curves (dvi) or (pdf)

9. Some Notes on Non-Standard Differentiation and Integration (dvi) or (pdf)

10. An Interpretation of Newton's Work in Calculus (dvi) or (pdf) , with attached diagrams; (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

11. A Theory of Duality for Algebraic Curves (dvi) or (pdf)

12. Flash Geometry of Algebraic Curves (dvi) or (pdf) (A Proof of Severi's Conjecture)

13. Severi's Conjecture and Single Node Curves (dvi) or (pdf)

14. A Theory of Harmonic Variations (dvi) or (pdf)

15. The Geometry of Linear Regular Types (pdf)

16. Some Notes on Quantifier Elimination and Model Completeness (dvi) or (pdf)

17. A Nonstandard Approach to the Theory of Algebraic Curves (pdf)

18. Applications of Nonstandard Analysis to Probability Theory (pdf)

19. A Simple Proof of the Fourier Inversion Theorem Using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf), (submitted to the Journal of

Fourier Analysis and Applications), (2014)

20. A Simple Proof of the Uniform Convergence of Fourier Series Using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf), (submitted to the

Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications), (2014)

21. A Simple Proof of the Martingale Representation Theorem using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf)

22. Solving the Heat Equation Using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (attached files for option

pricing; run spectrum.m in MATLAB) (in progress)

23. Decay Rates for Cusp Functions (pdf)

24. A Note on Inflexions of Curves (pdf) (in progress)

25. Non Standard Analysis and Physics (pdf) (in progress)

26. A Simple Proof of the Uniform Convergence of Fourier Series in Solutions to the Wave Equation (pdf)

27. A Note on Convergence of Fourier Series (pdf)

28. A Lemma on Polynomial Roots (pdf)

29. An Inversion Theorem for Laplace Transforms

30. A Topological Note (pdf, required in 14)

31. Electron Bunching (pdf) (in progress)

32. Solving Schrodinger's Equation Using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf) (in progress)

33. Bounding the Number of Maximal Torsion Cosets on Algebraic Varieties (pdf)

34. Historical Research into Plucker and Laplace (pdf)

35. Historical Research into Laplace (contd) (pdf)

36. Historical Research into Newton (pdf)

37. Historical Research into Piero della Francesca (pdf)

38. A Nonstandard Approach to Solving N'th Order, Linear, Inhomogeneous ODE's with Smooth Function Coefficients (pdf)

39. A Proof of the Ergodic Theorem using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf)

40. Applications of Nonstandard Analysis to Riemann Sums (pdf)

41. Riemann Sums for Returning Points (pdf) (in progress)

42. Notes on the Weil Conjectures for Curves (pdf)

43. A Nonstandard Approach to Equidistribution (pdf)

44. A Nonstandard Approach to Equidistribution in Ergodic Theory (pdf) (in progress)

45. Results on the Nonstandard Laplacian (pdf, required in 32) (in progress)

46. A Nonstandard Version of the Fokker-Planck Equation (pdf) (in progress)

47. Nonstandard Martingales, Markov Chains and the Heat Equation (pdf)

48. Nonstandard Methods for Solving the Heat Equation (pdf) (in progress, but still have original version, submitted to JLA)

49. Nonstandard Methods for Solving Schrodinger's Equation (pdf) (in progress)

50. Oscillatory Integrals (pdf) (in progress)

51 Simple Proofs of the Riemann-Lebesgue Lemmas using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf)

52. Computing the Distribution of Velocities of Some Solutions to the Nonstandard Diffusion Equation (pdf) (in progress)

53. Schrodinger's Equation and Related Charge Density (pdf)

54. A Nonstandard Version of Dirichlet's Theorem (pdf)

55. Antiderivatives of Inverse Functions (pdf)

56. A Nonstandard Solution to the Wave Equation (pdf)

57. A Nonstandard Poisson Summation Formula (pdf)

58. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory (pdf), published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences

(Volume 5)), (2021) (I've added a few footnotes since the original publication and included a design to generate the

corresponding electromagnetic signal using a cavity magnetron. The signal is generated inside the magnetron, with zero

current at the boundary. The response signal outside the magnetron is a radiowave in the sense that it solves Maxwell's

equation in vacuum, but is continuous with the matter wave inside. This is the work of 73,74,75. The dimensions of the

spherical cavity can be chosen to have a radius of about 0.05m, and the signal outside the magnetron can be picked up

by an RLC circuit and then amplified. The signal will resonate with radii of other dimensions, which can be calculated

using some code to find the zeros of a Bessel function.) The paper recovers the proportionality in the spacings of the

spectral lines of the Balmer series, which can be measured using a hydrogen discharge tube and a diffraction grating.

59. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 2 (pdf), (published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences

(Volume 6)), (2022) (This provides the theoretical justification for the idea that if an electromagnetic system is in thermal

equilibrium and doesn't radiate at infinity for all obsevers, then the charge and current obeys the relations given in (58). The

result can probably be strengthened without the assumption of thermal equilibrium, a case which is considered in (72). It

seems clear that in the design of (58), as the charge is confined, the configuration shouldn't radiate at infinity, by Rutherford's

observation for atomic systems. The vanishing of the magnetic field in (58) can be checked by zero induction through a loop.

The signal can be detected by deflection of electrons; replacing the deflecting coils on a cathode ray tube with a wave guide.)

I've added a lemma at the end and filled in a proof since the original publication.

60. Equilibria in Electrochemistry and Maximal Rates of Reaction (pdf), (published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences

(Volume 7)), (2023) I've added a footnote since the original publication. (files for driving a motor to alter the potential

along a maximal reaction path in electrolysis of water 1 2 (matlab), 3 (Arduino)), Graphs showing the difference between

equilibrium and maximal reaction lines 1 2, we currently keep temperature and pressure in electrolyzers fixed. I've

included the basic design and a further design more compatible with existing PEM technology. Water can be difficult to

pressurise, so currently the best strategy for a prototype is to alter the temperature of a 2% sulfuric acid or 1% sodium

bicarbonate solution, while altering the direct current through a rectifier using the motor, a potentiometer and an L298N

driver.You can check the potentials with a multimeter. You can get basic control of a motor using Arduino, with the

following circuit. Here is a table showing the different amounts of gas production from electrolysis, using varying temperature

and potential, these results are theoretically justified. Here is the motor in action. (There is a mistake in the paper as it currently

stands. In electrolysis, the amount of substance produced should only depend on the endpoint of the reaction path and the

initial amounts, as no substance is formed in a loop. The amount of energy expended in producing a given amount of substance

however does depend on the path. The reaction rate formula I gave is wrong, and I'm currently correcting it) (in progress)

61. The Continuity Equation and Particle Motion (pdf) (in progress) (Attempting to support the intuitive idea that current is

determined by charge and the individual velocity of particles. The result is used in (63). It could also be used to construct a

diffusion for a pair of potentials (V,A) in the Lorentz gauge corresponding to given electric and magnetic fields (E,B) in vacuum,

noting that (V/c^2,A) satisfies the continuity equation, and supporting the photon model of light.)

62. Electrolysis, Acids and pH (pdf) (in progress) (considers Faraday's theory of electrolysis, definitions of acidity, relates pH

with cell potential in electrolysis of water and includes some notes about error terms used in (60)). The paper supports the

idea of a method of creating plasmas with a high concentration of H+ ions through electrolysis of water, converting into steam,

by adapting the designs in 60. This is a possible prototype. The plasma can be contained in a sphere of appropriate radius

in order to resonate with the design in 58. The paper gives an approximate estimate for the charging time of a hydrogen

fuel cell or flow battery, fitting into a car, if we alter the voltage according to the lines in (60) while cooling the cell to a room

temperature of 20 degrees centigrade, with initial temperatures of 50,75,100 degrees centigrade, as 5 minutes, 2 minutes

40 seconds and 2 minutes. It takes abut 30 hours to recharge a conventional electric car battery.

63. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 3 (pdf), (published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences),

(Volume 7), (2023) (I've included another design to generate the corresponding fundamental electromagnetic signal using an

antenna. The three fundamental modes and one reverse mode, as in the paper, could be simulated with four antennae or

combined directly in one. The approximation becomes better with the use of an n-gon and large n, instead of a pentagon,

(**) The field created by the inducting loop can be cancelled by winding the inner approximation like in one side of a transformer.

The signal can be detected by electromagnetic induction, using a circular loop for the antenna, attached to a radio receiver,

or using an oscilloscope to measure the emf.)

64. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 4 (pdf) (in progress) (Still a collection of notes, the main aim

being to characterise electromagnetic fields which are non-radiating. This would find an application in optical amplifiers.)

65. Non Oscillatory Functions and a Fourier Inversion Theorem for Functions of Very Moderate Decrease (pdf) (This improves

almost everywhere convergence to everywhere convergence in certain cases of Carlsen's result for functions in L^2(R); these

cases occurring naturally in Physics), submitted to the Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications, (2023)

66. A Note on Polar and Caretesian Derivatives (pdf)

67. Rate Laws and Collision Theory (pdf) (in progress) (Technically a chemistry paper, but also applies to mathematical finance.

The idea is to use Brownian motion to determine the mean free path of particles involved in a simple two substance reaction,

with connections to the Arrhenius equation. Develops the theory of (48).)

68. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 5: No Radiation of Light (pdf) (in progress)

69. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 6: Waves, Current and Charge (pdf)

70. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 7: The Hyperbolic Method (pdf) (in progress) (Existence of the

electromagnetic fields defined by the "causal" Jefimenko equations) ((68,69,70) will eventually contain the material from (64)).

71. Some Results in Biochemistry and Biophysics (pdf) (This paper advoctes the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of

both acidosis and associated heightened channel potential.)

72. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 8 (pdf) (2023) (published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences),

(Volume 7) (2023) as "Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 4",developing the theory of thermal

equilibrium in electromagnetism)

73. Microwave Engineering (pdf) (2023) (implements the ideas from 58,59,61,63,64 in the context of microwave engineering)

74. Microwave Engineering 2 (pdf) (in progress) (2023) (computes the impedance of surface current and potential in cavity

magnetrons, with the idea of tuning magnetrons to match the resonant and responsive modes in all directions, uses 73. Once

the surface impedance is known, one can build an RL or RC circuit to effectively receive the signal generated by the magnetron.)

75. Microwave Engineering 3 (pdf) (repeats the arguments of 73,74 for the spherical cavity magnetron, uses 58 to find the zero

current at boundary condition on the charge, with applications to confining plasmas in spheromaks.)

76. Functions Analytic at Infinity and Normality (pdf) (existence of Fourier transform for normal functions)

77. A Fourier Inversion Theorem for Normal Functions (pdf)

78. The Relativity of Rotating Frames (pdf) (in progress)

A book I wrote on nonstandard analysis.

A paper I wrote on aesthetics and geometry;

79. Cosmati Pavements: The Art of Geometry, (published in Bridges Leeuwarden Proceedings (2008))

I've included a design to achieve igntion and control the firing rate wirelessly in a car or aircraft engine and a design to achieve controlled nuclear fusion. Both

ideas rely on the telecommunication designs of (58) and (63), the fusion idea is also related to the papers (60) and (61). These connections might lead to further

integration between these fields, the automotive, aviation and fusion industries.

Some powerpoint presentations for the Newton Project at Culverhay;

1. Integration

2. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

My PhD adviser, at M.I.T, was Professor Byunghan Kim, who is an expert in the area of simple theories. A simple theory is a structure in which certain

amalgamation properties hold. You can find, here, some geometric pictures of 1-amalgamation and 3-amalgamation (1>2>3), used, particularly, in the

second paper. My PhD thesis was mainly concerned with developing properties of minimal structures in such theories. A minimal structure is, very roughly

speaking, an abstract version of an algebraic curve. Since then, I have been a research fellow at Edinburgh University, The University of Camerino and

The University of Exeter, specialising in the geometry of such curves. My masters thesis at Manchester University was on the Model Theory of Lie Algebras

(dvi).

The contents of this page are copyrighted.

(*) An attempt to recreate this design could be dangerous, due to the increase in charge density and current inside the spherical cavity.Note that this design

is not the same as putting a hollow metallic sphere inside a microwave oven; the radiation caused by a cavity magnetron would induce a current through the

metal and cause arcing, due to the changing magnetic field. The radiation generated by this design should have a zero magnetic field, though it can still

accelerate charge due to the electric field.

(**) This design is probably safer. It differs from a conventional transmitting antenna in that the current and charge density, at a given time, changes along

different portions of the loop.