My research papers in mathematics;

                                             1. The Geometry of 1-Based Minimal Types  (dvi) or (pdf) (with Byunghan Kim) (published in Transactions of the American
                                                  Mathematical Society, vol 355, No. 10, (2003))
                                             2. Constructing the Hyperdefinable Group from the Group Configuration (dvi) or (pdf) (with Byunghan Kim and Jessica Young)
                                                 (published in Jornal of Mathematical Logic, 6, (2), (2006))
                                             3. Infinitesimals in a Recursively Enumerable Prime Model  (dvi) or (pdf)
                                             4. Zariski Structures and Algebraic Curvesj(dvi) or (pdf) or ohjgg
                                             5. A Non-Standard Bezout Theorem for Curves (dvi) or (pdf) (published in
Birational Geometry, Kaehler-Einstein Metrics
                                                 and Degenerations, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics), (2005).                                           
                                             6. A Theory of Branches for Algebraic Curves  (dvi) or (pdf)  (older version)
                                             7. A Theory of Divisors for Algebraic Curves  (dvi) or (new version) (in progress)
                                             8. Some Geometry of Nodal Curves  (dvi)  or (pdf)
                                             9. Some Notes on Non-Standard Differentiation and Integration (dvi) or (pdf)
                                            10. An Interpretation of Newton's Work in Calculus (dvi) or (pdf) , with attached diagrams; (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
                                            11. A Theory of Duality for Algebraic Curves  (dvi) or (pdf)
                                            12. Flash Geometry of Algebraic Curves (dvi) or (pdf)  (A Proof of Severi's Conjecture)
                                            13. Severi's Conjecture and Single Node Curves (dvi) or (pdf)
                                            14. A Theory of Harmonic Variations (dvi) or (pdf) 
                                            15. The Geometry of Linear Regular Types (pdf)
                                            16. Some Notes on Quantifier Elimination and Model Completeness (dvi) or (pdf)
                                            17.  A Nonstandard Approach to the Theory of Algebraic Curves (pdf)
                                            18.  Applications of Nonstandard Analysis to Probability Theory (pdf)
                                            19.  A Simple Proof of the Fourier Inversion Theorem Using Nonstandard Analysis  (pdf), (submitted to the Journal of
                                                   Fourier Analysis and Applications), (2014)
                                            20. A Simple Proof of the Uniform Convergence of Fourier Series Using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf),
(submitted to the
                                                  Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications), (2014)

                                            21.  A Simple Proof of the Martingale Representation Theorem using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf)
                                            22.  Solving the Heat Equation Using Nonstandard Analysis  (pdf) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  (attached files for option
                                                   pricing; run spectrum.m in MATLAB) (in progress)
                                            23. Decay Rates for Cusp Functions (pdf)
                                            24. A Note on Inflexions of Curves (pdf) (in progress)
                                            25. Non Standard Analysis and Physics (pdf) (in progress)
                                            26. A Simple Proof of the Uniform Convergence of Fourier Series in Solutions to the Wave Equation (pdf)
                                            27. A Note on Convergence of Fourier Series (pdf)
                                            28. A Lemma on Polynomial Roots (pdf)
                                            29. An Inversion Theorem for Laplace Transforms
                                            30. A Topological Note (pdf, required in 14)
                                            31. Electron Bunching  (pdf) (in progress)
                                            32. Solving Schrodinger's Equation Using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf) (in progress)
                                            33. Bounding the Number of Maximal Torsion Cosets on Algebraic Varieties (pdf)
                                            34. Historical Research into Plucker and Laplace (pdf)
                                            35. Historical Research into Laplace (contd) (pdf)
                                            36. Historical Research into Newton (pdf)
                                            37. Historical Research into Piero della Francesca (pdf)
                                            38. A Nonstandard Approach to Solving N'th Order, Linear, Inhomogeneous ODE's with Smooth Function Coefficients (pdf)
                                            39. A Proof of the Ergodic Theorem using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf)
                                            40. Applications of Nonstandard Analysis to Riemann Sums (pdf)
                                            41. Riemann Sums for Returning Points (pdf) (in progress)
                                            42. Notes on the Weil Conjectures for Curves (pdf)
                                            43. A Nonstandard Approach to Equidistribution (pdf)
                                            44.  A Nonstandard Approach to Equidistribution in Ergodic Theory (pdf) (in progress)
                                            45. Results on the Nonstandard Laplacian (pdf, required in 32) (in progress)
                                            46. A Nonstandard Version of the Fokker-Planck Equation (pdf) (in progress)
                                            47. Nonstandard Martingales, Markov Chains and the Heat Equation (pdf)
                                            48. Nonstandard Methods for Solving the Heat Equation (pdf)  (in progress, but still have original version, submitted to JLA)
                                            49. Nonstandard Methods for Solving Schrodinger's Equation (pdf) (in progress)
                                            50. Oscillatory Integrals (pdf) (in progress)
                                            51  Simple Proofs of the Riemann-Lebesgue Lemmas using Nonstandard Analysis (pdf)
                                            52. Computing the Distribution of Velocities of Some Solutions to the Nonstandard Diffusion Equation (pdf) (in progress)
                                            53. Schrodinger's Equation and Related Charge Density (pdf)
                                            54. A Nonstandard Version of Dirichlet's Theorem (pdf)
                                            55. Antiderivatives of Inverse Functions (pdf)
                                            56. A Nonstandard Solution to the Wave Equation (pdf)
                                            57. A Nonstandard Poisson Summation Formula (pdf)
                                            58. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory (pdf), published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences (Volume 5)), (2021)
                                                  (I've added a few footnotes since the original publication and included a design to generate the corresponding electromagnetic
                                                   signal using a cavity magnetron. The dimensions of the larger spherical cavity have to be calculated from the paper, (*))
                                            59. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 2 (pdf), (published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences (Volume 6)), (2022)
                                                   (This provides the theoretical justification for the idea that if an electromagnetic system is in thermal equilibrium and doesn't radiate
                                                   at infinity for all obsevers, then the charge and current obeys the relations given in (58). It seems clear that in the design of (58), the
                                                   larger spherical cavity should be in thermal equilibrium, and, as the charge is confined, shouldn't radiate at infinity, by Rutherford's
                                                   observation for atomic systems. The vanishing of the magnetic field in (58) can be checked by zero induction through a loop.The
                                                   signal can be detected by deflection of electrons; replacing the deflecting coils on a cathode ray tube with a wave guide.) I've added a
                                                   lemma at the end since the original publication.
                                            60. Equilibria in Electrochemistry and Maximal Rates of Reaction (pdf), (published in Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences (Volume 7)), (2023)
                                                  I've added a footnote since the original publication. (files for driving a motor to alter the potential along a maximal reaction path in
                                                  electrolysis of water 1 2 (matlab), 3 (Arduino)), Graphs showing the difference between equilibrium and maximal reaction lines 1 2 3 4,
                                                  we currently keep temperature and pressure in  electrolyzers fixed. I've included the basic design and a further design more compatible
                                                  with existing PEM technology.
                                            61. The Continuity Equation and Particle Motion (pdf) (in progress)
                                            62. Electrolysis and Acids (pdf)
                                            63. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 3 (pdf),
(submitted to Open Journal of Mathematical Sciences), (2022)
                                                  (I've included another design to generate the corresponding fundamental electromagnetic signal using an antenna. The three fundamental
                                                   modes and one reverse mode, as in the paper, could be simulated with four antennae or combined directly in one. The approximation
                                                   becomes better with the use of an n-gon and large n, instead of a pentagon, (**) The field created by the inducting loop can be cancelled
                                                   by winding the inner approximation like in one side of a transformer. The signal can be detected by electromagnetic induction, using a
                                                   circular loop for the antenna, attached to a radio reciver.)
                                            64. Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 4 (pdf) (in progress)
                                            65. Non Oscillatory Functions and a Fourier Inversion Theorem for Functions of Very Moderate Decrease (pdf) (This improves almost
                                                  everywhere convergence to everywhere convergence in certain cases of Carlsen's result for functions in L^2(R); these cases occurring
                                                  naturally in Physics), submitted to the Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications, (2023)
                                            66.  A Note on Polar and Caretesian Derivatives (pdf)
                                            67.  Rate Laws and Collision Theory (pdf) (in progress)
                                            68.  Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 5: No Radiation of Light  (pdf) (in progress)
                                            69.  Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 6: Transformation Methods, Waves, Current and Charge (pdf) (in progress)
                                            70.  Some Arguments for the Wave Equation in Quantum Theory 7: The Hyperbolic Method (pdf) (in progress)
                                            71.  Some Results in Biochemistry and Biophysics (pdf) (in progress)

A book I wrote on nonstandard analysis.

A paper I wrote on aesthetics and geometry;

                                            72.  Cosmati Pavements: The Art of Geometry, (published in Bridges Leeuwarden Proceedings (2008))

 I've included a design to achieve igntion and control the firing rate wirelessly in a car or aircraft engine and a design to achieve controlled nuclear fusion. Both ideas rely
on the telecommunication
designs of (58) and (63), the fusion idea is also related to the papers (60) and (61). These connections might lead to further integration between
these fields, the automotive, aviation and fusion industries.

Some powerpoint presentations for the Newton Project at Culverhay;

                                             1. Integration
                                             2. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

  My PhD adviser, at M.I.T, was Professor Byunghan Kim, who is an expert in the area of simple theories. A simple theory is a structure in which certain amalgamation
properties hold. You can find, here, some geometric pictures of 1-amalgamation and 3-amalgamation (1>2>3), used, particularly, in the second paper. My PhD thesis
was mainly concerned with developing properties of minimal structures in such theories. A minimal structure is, very roughly speaking, an abstract version of an algebraic
curve. Since then, I have been a research fellow at Edinburgh University, The University of Camerino and The University of Exeter, specialising in the geometry of
such curves.

The contents of this page are copyrighted.

(*)  An attempt to recreate this design could be dangerous, due to the increase in charge density and current inside the spherical cavity.Note that this design is not the
      same as putting a hollow metallic sphere inside a microwave oven; the radiation caused by a cavity magnetron would induce a current through the metal and cause
      arcing, due to the changing magnetic field. The radiation generated by this design should have a zero magnetic field, though it can still accelerate charge due to the
      electric field. 

(**)  This design is probably safer. It differs from a conventional transmitting antenna in that the current and charge density, at a given time, changes along different
         portions of the loop.