Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture

                                                                                 Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas, Monasteries and Castles.


England; 1. Early Christian                     (c500-600)                       archway of St. Piran's oratory.
              2. Anglo-Saxon                       (c450-1066)                     Main archway and exterior arch of Odda's chapel, dogtooth and smallsquare windows 1 2 ([]),
                                                                                                      doorways 1(back)2 3 4, archways (detail), column and back of main arch (+) at St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Deerhurst, arcading details 1 2 3 4, south front, inner doorways 1 2, exterior archway
                                                                                                      and sculpture in Saint Laurence, Bradford on Avon, (o), Hedda stone, Peterborough, windows
                                                                                                      and doorway of Earl's Barton church and windows of All Saint's church, Brixworth, Northamptonshire,
                                                                                                      font of St. Mary's, Luppitt, window (detail) of St. Bueno's church, window of Wembury
                                                                                                      church, Devon, ([][][]), tower of St. Margaret's church, Bagendon, tower of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                      Barton-upon-Humber, tower (random) and archway of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne
                                                                                                      Rouse, interior of Escomb church, Durham, interior of St. Mary's church, Reculver, Kent,
                                                                                                      tower of St. Paul's monastery, Jarrow, round tower of Burnham Deepdale church, Norfolk,
                                                                                                      doorway of St. James the Great church, Coln St. Dennis, doorway, westwork, archway and
                                                                                                      spandrel of St. Michael and All Angels, Ledbury, tower of Tewkesbury Abbey,
                                                                                                      church house buildings of Gloucester Cathedral 1 2, doorway of  St. Mary's Priory church,
                                                                                                      Monmouth, saddleback towercolumns and doorway of St. Mary's church, Syde, (ooo),  tower
                                                                                                      of St. Oswalds church, Lassington, tower of St. Swithuns church, Brookthorpe, tower of St Margaret's
                                                                                                      church, Bagendon, carving at the Holy Rood church, Daglingworth, (oo), tower of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                      Duntisbourne Abbots, tower and window of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne Rouse, north
                                                                                                      doorway, south doorway (detail) and arch of St. Mary's, Great Washbourne, (+++), cross at
                                                                                                      Mylor parish church, (++++), jambs 1 2 3 4, arches 1 2, base block and pilaster strip (detail) of
                                                                                                      St. Lawrence church, Coln Rogers, north doorway (detail) of St. Andrew's church, Brewardine,
                                                                                                      (+++++), doorway and cross shaft of St. Andrew's church, Cold Aston, (++++++), splay window
                                                                                                       of St. Peter's church, Stanway, archform of St. Peter's church, Cornwell, archform and smallsqaure
                                                                                                       window frames 1 2 of St. David's church, Muchdewchurch, ([][]), cross shaft (detail) at All Saints
                                                                                                       church, Childwall, herringbone masonry, buttress with small square form, semi-circular, splay,
                                                                                                       rectangular, square form windows and doorway of Edvin Loach old church, (G), carvings at St. Peter's
                                                                                                       church, Bromyard, (I)..
               3. Celtic                                 (c500-1150)                      Font details 1 and 2 of St. Mary Magdelene church, Stoke Canon, cross at St. John's church,
                                                                                                       Morwenstow, cross and pillar (detail) of Mylor Parish church.
               4. Romanesque                      (c1100-1200)                    archway near Siverton village, doorway of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, exterior
                                                                                                       columns 1 2 and interior columns 1 2 of the Priory church, Leominster, left archway columns 1 2 ,
                                                                                                       right archway columns 1 2, central archway columns 1 2 and dragon form of Shobdon church, see
               5. Norman                             (c1066-1180)                    west door and dragon form of St. Michael and All Angels, north door of Stanley Pontlarge church,
                                                                                                       pillars of  Pershore Abbeyvault and Gallilee Chapel of Durham Cathedral, nave of Tewkesbury Abbey,
                                                                                                       crossing vault of Worcester Cathedral, doorway of Eckington church, doorway of Guiting Power church,
                                                                                                       doorway(s) and details 1 2 3 4 (###) of Withington church, upper archway of Bibury church,
                                                                                                       nave (detail) and doorway of Leominster church, doorway of English Bicknor, doorway, archway,
                                                                                                       rib vault, portal ,capitals 1 2 3 4 5 with dragonforms 1 2 of St. Giles, Bredon, (*), doorway of Westwell
                                                                                                      church, corner capitals 1 2 3 4 of Coln St. Denis church, doorway of Coln St. Aldwyns church, doorway
                                                                                                      of Ledbury church, north wall of Rock church, arch, westwork (**), choir arcades and capitals of Hereford
                                                                                                      cathedral, corner capital, font, vault, corner capitals 1 2 3 4vault (oblique view) and tower of Holy Cross
                                                                                                      church, Avening, (####),  corner capital of  St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, nave of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Kempley, doorway of Kilpeck church, doorway of Lincoln cathedral, corner butresses of
                                                                                                      Chipping Campden church, corner capital, chancel arch and nave details of Garway church,
                                                                                                       capital, archway and dragon form (++) of Tredington church, nave and pillars of Peterborough cathedral,
                                                                                                       corner capitals and archway of Iffley church, archway of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, pillar, inner and outer
                                                                                                       archways of Morwenstow church (!), nave and capital of Gloucester cathedral, doorway of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                       Gloucester, window of Boddington church, windows  of  St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 2
                                                                                                       (interior view) 3 (linear), 3(cistercian,cusp), 4(cusp), (interior view)  5 (geometric, random),
                                                                                                       windows of St. Mary's church, Luppitt, 1 2 (linear) 3 (cusp), doorway of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window (interior view) (linear) of Doddisombleigh church, window (cusp) of St. Petroc's,
                                                                                                       Lydford, window (linear) of St. Michael de la Rupe church, Brentor, windows, 1 (cusp,random)
                                                                                                       2 (linear) of Saint Werburgh's church, Wembury, window (geometric, random) of Saint Winifred's
                                                                                                       church, Branscombe, windows 1 2 (cusp) 3 (random) of St. Mary's church, Rewe, windows
                                                                                                       1(cusp) 2 (cusp, cistercian) of St. Thomas's church, Thorverton, window (cusp) of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, tower of St. Paul de Leon church, Staverton, towers of St. Nonna's church, Bradstone,
                                                                                                       and St. Bridget's church, Bridestowe,  window (linear) and font of Holy Trinity, Drewsteignton,
                                                                                                       arch scroll (detail) of St. Petroc's, Inwardleigh,  font and doorway (s) of St. Nonna's church, Alturnun,
                                                                                                       font of St. Mary the Virgin, Bratton Clovelly, tower of  St. German's church, Germansweek, tower
                                                                                                       of St. Michael's church, Meeth, windows, doorways (1), (2) , archways, corner capitals (1), (2),
                                                                                                       column, stringcourse and cross rib vaulting of St. German's church, St. German, doorway and
                                                                                                       buttressing of  St. Peter's, Revelstoke, archway of St.Peter's church, Tiverton, window (linear) of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Hemyock, font and piscina of St. Mary's church, Cheriton Bishop, corner
                                                                                                       capitals 1 2 3 4 of Holy Cross church, Crediton, font (detail) of St. Michael and all Angels, Exeter,
                                                                                                      doorways 1 2 and typanum of St. John the Baptist church and windows of the Bishop's Palace,
                                                                                                      Bishopsteignton, font of All Saint's church, Eggesford, archway details 1 2 of St. Mary's church,
                                                                                                      High Bickington,  font and window of St. Pancras's church, Exeter, doorway and corner capital
                                                                                                      of All Saints church, North Cerney, font details 1, 2, 3, 4 of St. Peter's church, Rendcomb,
                                                                                                      doorway with diaper pattern, volute capitalfont details 1 2 3 (!!!!) of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
                                                                                                      archway and tower of Temple church, Temple, Cornwall, archway (detail), corner capitals 1, 2 and
                                                                                                      window (linear) of St. Michael's church, Shebbear, corner capitals 1 2 of St. Michael's church,
                                                                                                      Duntisbourne Rouse, archway , pillars 1, 2 and window (linear)of St. Mary's church, Great Barrington,
                                                                                                      archway and corner capitals 1 2 of St. Peters church, Little Barrington, font details 1 2 3 4 and piscina
                                                                                                      of St.Michael's church, Spreyton, font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock,  archway
                                                                                                      details 1 2 of St. Benedict's church, Buckland Brewer, archway details 1 2 and font of All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Clovelly, font of St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, archway details 1 2 of St. James' church, Parkham,
                                                                                                      archway details 1 2 of All Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, font of All Saints church, Merton,
                                                                                                      arch fragment of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, archway of St.Mary's church, East Worlington,
                                                                                                      archway details 1 2 of St. Giles's church, Ashleigh,  entrance archway details 1 2 3chancel archway
                                                                                                      details 1 2 3 and  window (exterior view) of St. Mary's church, Lower Swell, archway details 1 2 of
                                                                                                      St. Mary's, church, Upper Swell, archway (detail), chancel boss, chancel pillar with dragon form, chancel
                                                                                                      detail , porch capitals and capital , clustered capitals and carvings 1 2 of St. John the Baptist church,
                                                                                                      Elkstone, (##), westwork ,(**),of Tewkesbury abbey, trefoil capital of Winchester Cathedral, doorway
                                                                                                      of St. Mary's Priory church, Monmouth, doorway and pillars of St. Swithun's church, Leonard Stanley,
                                                                                                      cushion capitals 1 2 of Gloucester Cathedral crypt, (****), tympanum and corner capital of St. Stephen's
                                                                                                      church, Moreton Valence, corner capitals of Hereford cathedral, corner capital, tympanum of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church, Byton (*****), tympanum of St. Nicholas' church, Gloucester, tympanum of Shobdon church,
                                                                                                      archway and column of the Priory church, Leominster, (******), butresses of St. Mary's, Little
                                                                                                      Washourne, font at St. Nectan's church, Stoke, doorway (detail) and cross of  Mylor parish church,
                                                                                                      (********), capitalarchway and column of St. Mary's church,Great Barrington, doorway, moulding
                                                                                                      and tympanum of St. Peter's church, Little Barrington, tympanum (detail) of St. Andrew's church,
                                                                                                      Brewardine, doorway, tympanum and corner capital of St. Andrew's church, Cold Aston, stars and
                                                                                                      capital fragments of St. Margaret's church, Alderton, (*********), column and arches of Evesham
                                                                                                      Abbey, arch of St. Michael's church, Stanton, arches 1 2 and pillars of St. Eadburgha's church,
                                                                                                      Broadway, cluster capital of St. Peter's church, Stanway, arcade and scallop capital  of St.
                                                                                                      Bartholomew's church, Aldsworth, cushion capitals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of Worcester Cathedral, (**********),
                                                                                                      cushion , volute, oblong capitals and gravestones 1 2 3 4  at St. John the Baptist church, Great Rissington,
                                                                                                      capitals 1 2 and archform of St. Peter's church, Cornwell, font and pillar of St. Leonard's church,
                                                                                                      Bledington, clustered column and arch of St. David's church, Much Dewchurch, arch and column of St.
                                                                                                      James the Great church, Stoke Orchard, archforms 1 2 3 of Glastonbury Abbey, (***********),
                                                                                                      archway and capital of the Holy Rood church, Daglingworth, (************), capital at All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Childwall,  interlace archfoms at Winchester Cathedral, gravestone at St. Mary's and All Angels church,
                                                                                                      Brimpsfield, capital at Our Lady and St. Kenelm's church, Stow on the Wold, font (detail) of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church, Cowley, doorway and corner capital.of St. Andrew's church, Hazleton, archway at St. Oswald's
                                                                                                      church, Shipton Oliffe, (B), doorway of St. Paul's church, Shurdington, font of Llanrothal church, pillar
                                                                                                      details 1 2 of the chapel at St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall, (D), corner capital of St. Michael and All
                                                                                                      Angels, Guiting Power, font of Holy Trinity church, Ilfracombe, (E), Agnus Dei symboldoorwayleft and
                                                                                                      right capitals of St. Peter and St. Paul church, Holsworthy, (F), doorways with capitals 1(left, right),
                                                                                                      2(left, right), 3(left, right), chancel pillars 1 2 of St. Peter's church, Bromyard, (H), tympanum and
                                                                                                      pillars 1 2 (details 1 2 3) )of St. Mary Magdalene leper church, Gloucester, (J).
               6. Lancet (Early English)          (c1180-1275)                  Wells Cathedral, nave of Lincoln Cathedral, abbeys of BylandRievaulx and Whitby in
                                                                                            .         Yorkshire, lancet windows of York Cathedral, nave and lancet windows of Salisbury
                                                                                                      cathedral, piscina in  Saint  Dubricius's, Porlock, arcade and colonettes of  Worcester Cathedral,
                                                                                                       windows, interior, of St. Andrew's church, Sevenhampton, windows of Castle Combe
                                                                                                      church, outbuilding of Buckland abbey, lancet window of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers,
                                                                                                       window of Tintagel church, window of St. Swithuns church, Cornwall, window of St.Mary's, Luppitt,
                                                                                                       window of St. Petroc's church, Lydford, window of de la Rupe church, window of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, windows 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's church, Poltimore, buttresses 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                       Bickleigh, doorway of St. John the Baptist Church, Bere Regis, Dorset, window (s) and arcade  of
                                                                                                       Exeter Cathedral, St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, font of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
                                                                                                       window and piscina, of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font and piscinas 1 2 of St. Margaret
                                                                                                       of Antioch church , Alderton, doorway of King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, piscinas of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Silverton, windows of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, piscina of
                                                                                                       St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, font of All
                                                                                                       Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, lower archway of St. Mary's church, Bibury, arches 1 2 of Hailes
                                                                                                       Abbey, buttress of Hereford Cathedral, trefoil plate tracery of Winchester Cathedral, lancet window of
                                                                                                       St. George's church, Brisop, lancet windows 1 2 3 of Salisbury Cathedral, lancet window of Boyton church,
                                                                                                       arch form of Hartland Abbey (!!), arch and tower of St. Nectan's church, Stoke, arches 1 2 (detail), pillar,
                                                                                                       lancet windows 1 2 and circles of Blackfriars Abbey, Gloucester, (!!!), trefoil headed window of St. Giles,
                                                                                                       Bredon, arches, trefoil and lancet windows of St. Michael's church, Stanton, trefoil archforms of Glastonbury
                                                                                                       Abbey, (**********), fragment at St. Mary's church, Prestbury, arches of Hailes Abbey, archway of
                                                                                                       St. Paul's church, Shurdington, chancel arch of St. George's church, Orleton.
               7. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                  Choir of Lincoln Cathedral, chapterhouse of Westminster Abbey, cloister of Salisbury cathedral, window
                                                                                                      detail of Boyton church, arch detail of Sevenhampton church, cloister window of Exeter cathedral, window
                                                                                                      of St. Michael's, Buckland, cloister of Gloucester cathedral, archform and arch detail of St. Andrew's church,
                                                                                                      Cullompton, window of St. Mary's, Rewe, window (interior view)of St.Petroc's church, Lydford, window of
                                                                                                      St. Mary's church, Huxham, Devon, window (interior view) of St. Mary's, Poltimore, windows 1 2 3 4 5 of St.
                                                                                                      Peter's church, Tiverton, window of St. Ida the Green , Ide,  window of  St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, balustrade
                                                                                                      and turret of St. John the Baptist church, Plymtree, font (random) of St.Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font
                                                                                                      (random) of St. Mary's church, Black Torrington, balustrade of  King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth,
                                                                                                      balustrade of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, fragment at Hailes Abbey, quatrefoils at Gloucester
                                                                                                      Cathedral, window and archway of St. Mary's Church, Ross-on-Wye, window of St. Lawrence church, Stroud,
                                                                                                      (plan), tympanum at Hartland Abbey, (*******), Agnus Dei fragment of Glastonbury Abbey,
               8. Linear                                  (c1280-1300)                  St. Etheldreda's church window, London, Merton College Chapel east and north windows, (#),  Oxford,
                                                                                                      Buckland Abbey, cloister window (s) of Exeter cathedral, Bere Ferrers church window (interior view) (detail),
                                                                                                      window of St. Nonna's church, Altarnun.
               9. Cusp                                    (c1280)                           window (s), (detail), of Gulval church, Penzance.  St. Ives church, Cornwall, window of Kilkhampton
                                                                                                      church, doorway (detail) of St. Mary's, Stoke Cannon, window of St. Mary's church, Silverton
                                                                                                      (interior view), windows 1 2 of St. John's church, Broadclyst, window of St. Mary's church, Poltimore,
                                                                                                       window (detail) (interior view) of St. Mary's church, Bickleigh, windows 1 2 of St. Mary's church, Upton
                                                                                                       Pyne, window of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, doorway of St. Andrew's church, Coln Rogers.
               10. Response to Rayonnant        (c1280-1300)                  Boyton Church rose window , Wiltshire, St. Mary's window, Cheltenham, window of  St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Bramford Speke.
               11. Curvilinear                           (c1275-1380)                   archform at All Saints church, Childwall.
               12. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  East window, cloister window(s), arcade wall and vault of Gloucester cathedral, east window of
                                                                                                        St. Mary's, Frampton on Severn,  window of St. Andrew's church, Moretonhampstead,
                                                                                                        font of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, spade design, fan and spade vaulting (detail) of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Winchcombe, outbuilding of Sudeley Castle, fan vaulting, archway and window of St. John the Baptist church,
                                                                                                        Cirencester, outbuilding at Bourton Hill,  spade design and window of St. Mary's church, Painswick, spade
                                                                                                        and shield design at Greyfriars church, Gloucester, fan vaulting of Beverston chapel, windows 1 2 3 of  St.
                                                                                                        Leonard's church, Bledington, window and buttress of St. Edward's church, Stow on the Wold, fan vaulting
                                                                                                        of St. Andrew's church, Cullumpton, archways of St. Catherine's church, Chipping Campden.
 Wales;     1.  Norman                              (c1066-1180)                  Chevron pattern of St. Mary's church, Monmouth, drum pillar of Dore Abbey, volute capitals 1 2 3 and
                                                                                                        windows 1 2 3 of Llanthony Priory, (\\\\), green man and dragon form at Brecon Cathedral, (\\\\\),
                                                                                                        doorwaycolumnclearstoreypillararchway and corner capitals of St. David's Cathedral. 
                2.  Anglo-Romanesque            (c1050-1137)                   Pillar of St. Bridget's church, Skenfrith, (A).
                3.  Romanesque                      (c1066-1180)                   Windows, 1 2, and doorways,  1 2 of St. Thomas's church, Monmouth.
                4.  Lancet                                (c1180-1275)                  Nave (arch detail) of Tintern Abbey, oculus of Llanthony Priory, lancet windows and
                                                                                                        facade of Abbey Dore, (\\).
                5. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                  Clearstorey windows of Tintern Abbey, font, nave, arches and pillar of St. Nicholas' church, Grosmont,
                                                                                                       capitals 1 2 of Llanthony Priory, columns, bosses 1 2 and archforms of Brecon Cathedral, (\\\), pillars 1 2
                                                                                                       of St. Bridget's church, Skenfrith, archway of St. David's cathedral.
                6. Linear                                  (c1280-1300)                  Brecon Cathedral window.
                7. Curvilinear                           (c1275-1380)                   Rose window, arcades and chapel of the Bishop's Palace, St. David's.
                8. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  Tower of St. Mary's church, Brecon.

Ireland      1. Anglo-Saxon                       (c850-1067)                   Windows at 185,180,135,90 and 30 degrees of the round tower of Rock of Cashel,  round tower details at
                                                                                                       Monasterboice, round tower and herringbone archform at St. Finian's church, Clonmacnoise, rectangular
                                                                                                       forms at McCarthy's round tower, Clonmacnoise, round tower of Iniscealtra, round tower of Kilmacduagh,
                                                                                                       round tower at Scattery Island, round tower of Kells, round tower of Clones, round tower (detail) of Kildare,
                                                                                                       triangular roof form, quadrilateral and dogtooth windows at St. Doulagh's church, bell from Rock of Cashel.
                    (possibly with later Anglo-Norman features)
                2. Anglo-Norman                    (c1067-1172)                   round tower at Devenish Island, round tower of Ardmore, conic top of St. Finian's  round tower,
                                                                                                        Clonmacnoise, round tower at Kilossy, doorways 1 2, corner capital and gravestone of Christchurch
                                                                                                        Cathedral, Dublin, round tower of St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny, views frontbackleftright of the
                                                                                                        round tower at Timahoe, window of St. Peter and St. Paul's Cathedral, doorways 1 2 of the Priest's House,
                                                                                                        round tower details 1 2, doorway, front and tower of St. Kevin's church, St. Mary's church, arches 1 2 and
                                                                                                        windows 1 2 of Reefert church, Glendalough.
                3. Lancet                                 (c1180-1275)                   Lancet windows of Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin, vault of Timoleague Abbey, exterior arches 1 2,
                                                                                                        interior arch, vault, lancet windows and nave of the Cathedral at Rock of Cashel, Hore Abbey.
                4. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                   Westwork battlements of Down Cathedral, church of St. Mochua at Timahoe.(\\\\\\\).


Scotland  1. Anglo-Saxon                       (c?-1067)                         Doorway and window of Abernethy round tower, (C).
               2. Lancet                                 (c1180-1275)                   Crypt , exterior walkways 1 2 and lancet windows of St. Kentgern's Cathedral, Glasgow.
               3. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  spade design at Rosslyn chapel, Roslin, (\\\\\\\\\).

France    1. Norman                                (c1066-1120)                  corner tower of Jumieges Abbey, Normandy, ribbed vault of Saint Etienne Abbey, Caen, pointed
                                                                                                       archforms of the Basilica of Paray-le-Monial, Burgundy, naverib vault and clearstorey of Lessay
                                                                                                       Abbey (\\\\\\).
Sweden:  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Apse and crypt pillars of Lund cathedral
               2. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Storkyran interior, Stockholm    

Gotland;  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Tower of St. Lars, St. Drottens in Visby, Gotland, cloister pavement in Roma, Gotland.
  (\)         2. Response to Geometric/       (c1200-1300)                 Vaultdoorway (cusp) and window (cusp) of Helge And, crossing and doorway of St. Lars, St. Katarina
                   English                                                                         rose window of St. Nicolaus, St. Clemensdefensive walls in Visby, Gotland.          
               3. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Doorway(s) and window of Tofta, doorway and window of Masterby, more doorway(s) of Bro
                                                                                                      churches in Gotland

Denmark; 1. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                 Doorway of Osterlars church, Ostermarie church, Bornholm, crypt of Viborg cathedral,
                                                                                                     doorway and pillar of Ribe cathedral, doorway of Aalborg church, crypt of Arhus cathedral,
                                                                                                     Roskilde cathedral
                2. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                 Stege church, doorway of Helsingborg churchpillar of Absalon's church, Copenhagen
                3. Response to English             (c1200-1300)                Sakskobing church
                4. Response to Lancet             (c1200-1300)                Vejle church
                5. Response to Cistercian        (c1250-1300)                 Bornholm round churches of Osterlars, OlskerNyker and Nylars.
                6. Regional Gothic                   (c1350)                          Frescoes of Osterlars ( 1 2 3 ), Nyker (1 2 3) and Nylars ( 1 2 3 ), Bornholm.
                7. Regional Scandinavian         (c1250-1400)                 Elmelund church, Svendborg church, Nakskov church, Odense cathedral, Vor Frue Kirke,
                                                                                                     Odense, St. Olav's church, Faroe Islands, (***).
Norway;   1. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                Cathedral of St. Halvard, Royal Chapel of St. Mary's, (ambient), Oslo, Archbishop's Palace
                                                                                                     and archway of the cathedral in Trondheim, archway and pillar of Stavanger cathedral doorway (detail)
                                                                                                     of  St. Paul's church, Bergen.
                 2. Cistercian                           (c1150)                          Hovedoy cloister , Oslo
                 3. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                Doorway (detail) and interior (1 2) of  St. Mary's Church, Bergen, doorway (interior) of Varhaug church, Stavanger.
                 4. Response to English            (c1200-1300)                Trondheim Cathedral nave, Apostle's church, Bergen

Sicily;        1. Norman                              (c1070-1180)                Pavement of  San Cataldo church, Pavement of Capella Palatina in Palazzo dei Normanni,
                                                                                                     Choir Pavements of Monreale Cathedral.

Poland      1.Response to Geometric         (c1280-)                         St. Anne's chapel , Malbork Castle.
                 2.Response to Scandinavian     (c1350)                          St. Mary's church, Gdansk.
Belgium     1. Romanesque                        (c1134-1139)                 Columns and  doorway of St. Basil's chapel, Bruges.  
                 2. Regional Gothic                   (c1250-1400)                 Vault of St. Michael's church, St. Nicholas's church, Ghent. 
Austria      1. Romanesque                        (c1140-1200)                 Crypt of Gurk Cathedral.

(o)            According to  M. Hearn, the sculpture is influenced by Carolingian designs, see also (!!!!) here. In the exterior archway, the reveal is recessed
                 from the respond, a feature which Clapham in "English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest" claims are more common in Anglo-Saxon
                 churches of the north of England. The arcading exhibits regular bands with both 3 attached shafts, which Clapham mentions are used at Worth,
                 Clayton and Wittering, and 1 attached shaft, also used at Worth, and at Wing, in the arch intersections. There is slight recessing in the arcading and
                 a triangular form above the south front doorway, although, Clapham notes there is greater recessing and the use of triangular forms in the
                 arcading at Earl's Barton, Barton-on-Humber and Deerhurst. Pilaster strips, as at Colne Rogers in Gloucestershire, are used on the south front
                 corner, which are, unusually, buttress like, horizontal jambs are used on both inner doorways, as at Escomb and Odda's chapel, and there is an
                 asymmetry in the doorways along the axial line of the church. Unlike Earl's Barton, there are no herringbone networks along the walls. There is a
                 double splay window on the south front. Clapham dates the church to the early 10th century, the later Anglo-Saxon period, and after the
                 Carolingian period, (780-900).

(oo)          The Y-shape of the "Christ in Majesty" sculpture is typical of the Anglo-Saxon period.

(ooo)        The lintelled doorway is typically Anglo-Saxon, with the saddleback tower having the characteristic triangular form.         

(+)           According to George Zarnecki, the doghead is a precursor of beak-head ornamentation developed in Norman art, noting the parallel grooves, which
                are later used in the Anglo-Norman dragonforms at Malmesbury Abbey. The doorways exhibit oblong, dogtooth and the asymmetric quadrilateral
                geometry, which is used extensively in Anglo-Saxon architecture in Ireland, see (\\\\\\\). The column, with its cubical capital is reminiscent of later
                Anglo-Norman art.  Fischer in "Anglo-Saxon Towers" notes the asymmetry in the tower at Deerhurst, which can also be found in the third doorway.   

(++)         The parallel grooves suggest a relationship with the form at Deerhurst, further supporting the idea that Anglo-Norman sculpture was influenced by
                Anglo-Saxon art, Zarnecki mentions this connection in "English Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140".
(+++)       There is a resemblance with the arch forms at Odda's chapel and Turkdean,  but the chancel arch could be Anglo-Norman, the star pattern and arch
                 is similar to those at Brewardine, see (*****).

(++++)     The cross cuts out a star pattern, similar to that at Brewardine, suggesting an Anglo-Saxon influence, see also (********), again there is a diagonal
                 relationship, parallel to the Cornish coast, and a further diagonal with the north west coast of France, passing through the Scilly Isles and the south of
                 Ireland, see also (++++++) here.

(+++++)    The pilaster strip in the north wall at Coln Rogers is mentioned in Clapham's "English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest", noting that
                  they are usually terminated by a base block, which is absent here. The interior facing arches of the north and south walls, exhibit a typical use of jambs,
                  though the shape of the north arch is unusual. The jamb with respond in the exterior porch doorway is terminated by a base block, though the corner
                  capital is Norman, see (*****), the chancel jamb exhibits a beaded moulding, a Norman feature, similar to Mylor, see (********) and Cury. The
                 jambs of the interior south doorway are asymmetric, one being unusually short and possibly broken. The jambs and archway of the north door at
                 Brewardine are typically Anglo-Saxon. The 6-leaf pattern of the star designs might suggest that this form might occur with an even number of points in
                 Anglo-Saxon art. In even sided polygons, the opposite sides are parallel, in which case the method of harmonic variations variations doesn't work. For an
                 even number, one can instead consider bitangent degenerations with the tangent lines all passing through a point, in which case the tangent lines do not pair
                 into parallels, see also (*********).

(++++++) The use of jambs and a narrow archway at Cold Aston is Anglo-Saxon, see also (+++++), the star or snowflake pattern on the tympanum band might
                 be connected to the main Norman design of the church. The cross shaft has a braiding pattern, similar to the fragments at St. Oswald's Priory, see also
                (++++) here.        

(!)             Use of beakhead ornamentation occurs in the outer archway, alternating orders in the inner archway, as at Malmesbury Abbey.

(!!!!)          The tympanum and capitals are dated to about 1180 in Jerry Hibbert's leaflet on St. Peter's church, which agrees with Zarnecki's and the leaflet's
                  dating of the font. For more information on the volute capital, see (*******) here, but this is probably a late transitional version, (c1180; Zarnicki's
                  date, also in leaflet). The diaper pattern is typically Norman with intersecting diagonals, demonstrating the aesthetic of fragmentation. The details of
                  the font depict a square buckle, a spandrel between two arches, and the figure of Prudentia holding a staff with a cross. The spandrel form also
                  occurs in conjunction with Anglo-Saxon architecture, with a circular buckle of the same date appearing at Elkstone church, 1180 (Zarnecki), 
                  see (##).  

(!!)            Similar to the arch forms at Hailes Abbey, see (!!!).

(!!!)           The trefoil headed windows are similar to Hailes Abbey, while the interior lancet is typical of the period, the broader window has a slight apex, is
                  claimed to be a lancet, and is similar to early uses of the lancet form at Monreale, Sicily, see also (!) here. The pillar might be a development of the
                  Norman period, with a connection to water. The use of circles in a cross is typical of the later Geometric style in England, this could be an early
                  use of this idea, dating the Abbey to about 1240.
(*)             Belonging to the Transitional style of Norman architecture, arond 1170, the drum capital might be a new development, see (!!!) but the corner
                  volute capitals are copied from earlier forms, see  (*******)  here. The dragonforms on the west portal are of the grooved and non-grooved forms,
                  see (++).

(**)           Anglo-Saxon feature introduced into Norman archiecture by Robert of Jumieges in 1067, the triangular design dating from Lorsch abbey.
(***)         Possibly built as early as 1200.

(****)       According to "English Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140", by Zarnecki, cushion capitals are Anglo-Norman but had already been used
                  in Anglo-Saxon buidings; one can observe the simlarity with earlier designs, such as at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire. He argues that they were
                  introduced between 1066 and 1100, dating the crypt to 1089.

(*****)     In the same book, Zarnecki argues that corner capitals and tympana were introduced between 1100 and 1140, "The doorways often had carved
                  voussoirs, tympana, capitals and shafts, he dates this part of St. Stephen's church  to 1120. The detail of the column at Hereford Cathedral
                  resembling the carving at Daglingworth, and the star patterns at Brewardine, with their centralised geometries, again suggest an
                  Anglo-Saxon influence. Again, there  is a similar influence at Byton,  Zarnecki notes that these abstract patterns "so typical of some Anglo-Saxon
                  carvings, survived in many works that date from the late 11th or early 12th century". The Agnus Dei symbol is unusual in that the cross slants diagonally
                  rather than vertically, as in the Valviscolo cloisters, Italy, Kilpeck, Great Washbourne and Temple Guiting, suggesting a stronger Norman rather then
                 Cistercian influence.

(******)  This belongs to the period of Later Romanesque sculpture, 1140-1210, discussed in Zarnecki's  following book. He dates Shobdon to around 1140,
                 idenifying the columns as the first works of the Herefordshire School, the porticoe with the trefoil pattern is influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs, but is
                 Anglo-Norman. The columns at the Priory church are later works of the Herefordshire school, again there is a combination of Anglo-Saxon and
                 Norman motifs in the archway and column.

(*******) Compare with the design in the cloister at Salisbury Cathedral.
(********) The chevron pattern, with a beaded moulding along the diagonals, is a copy of the design at Cury, suggesting a relationship between the 2 locations.
                    The diagonals in the cross of the archway is also a Norman feature, similar to that at Byton and Egloskerry, with a connection to the symbol of the
                    Knight's Templar. The diagonal passes between these three churches, roughly parallel to the North coast of Cornwall.

(*********) The corner capitals in the south door at Brewardine are typically Norman, the 11-leaf pattern of the star designs in the tympanum suggests that this
                     form can occur with an odd or prime number of points in Norman art. In the case of curves with odd degree, one can use the method of harmonic
                     variations to investigate the notion of genus of a curve, see also (+++++) The Norman corner capitals at Cold Aston are of the volute type, see
                     (*******) here, but, unlike at Brewardine, the tympanum has star designs, with an even number of 4 points, set on a diagonal square. Both star
                     designs could be reminiscent of snowflakes. There is a cushion corner capital fragment at Alderton, see also (****), the star design has 8 points,
                     and is again set on a diagonal square, showing that the Normans used an even or odd number of points in such designs. One can observe narrow
                     arch forms and the use of a jamb in the column shaft at Evesham Abbey, dated to 1130. The trefoil shaped capital is different from the usual
                    Norman cushion capital design, which Zarnecki describes as Anglo-Norman, acknowledging the Anglo-Saxon influence, but further strengthens the
                    view that the trefoil is an Anglo-Saxon idea, and occurs before 1180.
(**********) The capital and arches are Anglo-Norman, with the use of the narrow circular arch, jambs in the pillar shafts and a striking resemblance to the base
                        of the font design at Ampney, see (####) here. The cluster capital at Stanway seems to be a development of the earlier Norman cushion capital, see
                       (****), while the scallop capitals at Broadway, Stanton and Aldsworth are another progression, in a further multiplication of forms, and belong to the
                        transitional style. The cushion capitals at Worcester, formed as the intersection of a hemisphere with a cube, are Anglo-Norman, as noted by Zarnecki,
                        with developments involving an embattled pattern, the use of grooves, further acknowleding the Anglo-Saxon influence, see (+) and (++), and use in a
                        corner. Zarnecki dates the volute capitals at Gloucester to 1089, but the cushion capitals there are composite developments of the single capital form,
                        used at Worcester, so, the Worcester crypt could have been built as early as 1084. Zarnecki claims that cushion capitals are used in Anglo-Saxon
                        architecture, but the only similar example I could find in Clapham, is at Worth, from the late 10th century, which is cubic and slightly curved at the
                        edges, but lacks the precise geometry found here. The trefoil  headed arches in St. Mary's chapel at Glastonbury Abbey are typical of the Early English
                        or Lancet period.  

(***********) The cushion capital at Great Rissington is clustered with grooves and scallops, a combination of the innovation at Worcester Cathedral crypt and linked
                          with Broadway, Stanton and Aldsworth. The volutes at Great Rissington are set on a drum capital, while the plain column must be a Norman copy of
                          the Anglo-Saxon original in the Anglo-Norman style. The three types of capital occur on three of the sides of the chancel. The gravestones at Great
                          Rissington are all decorated with swords. The capitals at Cornwell are scalloped, with the archway typical of the transitional Norman period, (c1160).
                          The font and capital at Bledington are both octagonal, with a similar transitional archform. This might show that the octagonal design was adopted later,
                          and the font belongs to the same period as the church itself. The archway and columns at Muchdewchurch are similar to at Great Rissington and must be
                          another Norman copy. As at Cornwell, the pointed archform at Stoke Orchard with the scalloped column is typical of the transitional Norman period.
                          Similarly, the pointed lancet archforms at Glastonbury Abbey suggest this was built about 1180, see also (**********).

(************). The clustered column is an Anglo-Norman development on the basic rectangular form and column used in Anglo-Saxon architecture, for example at
                             Odda's chapel.                          
         (#)         An extensive analysis of the linear style in England is given by Bony, noting the influence of Norman art. In the east window, one can see both the
                      aesthetic of fragmentation and the use of Y-tracery. In the north window, one can see linearity reflected in the use of the lancet form, but there is
                      also a combination with the use of trefoils, a feature of Early English designs, and influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs. 

     (##)         Zarnecki dates the boss in the chancel vault to 1180, it depicts a circular buckle with 2 animal heads and 8 points. The dragon head also has 4
                     points on either side of the mouth, the grooving suggestive of Anglo-Saxon art, see (++), but the points are also similar to those used in Norman
                     art, for example at Mylor, see (********) and (++++++) here. The position of the buckle suggests a further link with the capital, possibly
                     depicting an owl, the beak in the middle, on the right side of the main doorway, pointed to by the right hand of the father in the tympanum. There are
                     further architectural tricks in the chancel detail, depicting 2 semicircles, which might be positioned in the grooves of the porch capitals, by the main
                     doorway. The two sets of relationships might be linked. 
     (###)       Using (*****), we can date the corner capitals to between 1100 and 1140, the scalloped capital heads on the right of the doorway are reminiscent
                     of those found at Cormac chapel in Cashel, dating from the 9th century, see (!!!!!!!) here. This suggests that there might have been contacts between
                     the Normans and Ireland before the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland at the end of the 12th century.The vault at Durham Cathedral is an innovation
                     in the use of ribs and a pointed arch, to distribute the weight of the nave, possibly associated with the presence of the Cistercians at this time.
     (####)      According to a charter, the region of Avening was endowed to William and Matilda in about 1082, but the church was probably built later, about
                     1105. Comparison with the rib vault in the church at Lessay, see (\\\\\\), shows an interesting stylistic difference, in that the cross ribs are further
                     supported by two further lateral and horizontal beams. It still seems difficult to conclude which church has priority, but clearly the construction at
                     Lessay was either difficult to imitate or to prefigure. The use of eight and six points in the vault, the eight which now meet in a green man boss,
                     suggests an Anglo-Saxon as well as Norman influence. The corner supports of the rear vault are different from Lessay, in the use of Anglo-Norman
                     cubical scalloped capitals.         
      (\)           Now part of Sweden, but, at the time of construction, a Danish province, see Liber Census Daniae, often referred to as Kong Valdemar's Jorgebok.
      (\\)          The lunette feature is derived from early Carolingian examples, see (!!!!!) here.
      (\\\)         The circular designs from the font and in the pillar capitals are reminiscent of earlier Cistercian designs, for example at Byland and Whitby. The pointed
                     arch forms can also be seen at Rievaulx. It is an open question as to whether the first pointed vault, at Durham, is Cistercian. The capitals with circular
                     shafts at Llanthony Priory and Brecon Cathedral bear a striking resemblance to those at Grosmont church and might be from the same period, and
                     peculiar to Wales. The capital base bosses from Brecon Cathedral have a circular cap in the same style, the conjunction of the circular headed columns
                     with trefoil archform and quatrefoils dates this to about 1260, at the intersection of the lancet and geometric styles. 
     (\\\\)         The circular headed windows are of two types, the wider possibly originating from Conques (c1100), while the thinner seem to be
                     constructed by Walter de Lacy (c1100), with the style possibly originating in Carolingian designs, see (****) and (!!) here 
    (\\\\\)         The linear intersecting arch style at the base of the font is Norman, see (!!!!), but the use of jambs in the arch columns is Anglo-Saxon, so this belongs
                     to the Anglo-Norman style in Zarnecki's terminology. The green man symbol may originate in Ireland with illustrations from the Book of Kells.
    (\\\\\\)        The corner tower at Jumieges (c1067) is a development of some of the earlier Anglo-Saxon towers in Ireland, but now placed at the corner of a larger
                     structure, and with a conical turret. The ribbed vault at Caen is about 1120, before Saint Denis but after that of Durham Cathedral (c1115) and Avening
                     church (c1105), belonging to the Norman Gothic style in France, characterised by long wall tribunes and galleries. Bony cites the forms at Paray-le
                     Monial (c1110) as the earliest example of pointed arches, so scaffolding must have been involved in the construction at Durham. Conant dates the
                     construction of Lessay Abbey from 1090 to 1135, the earlier date being before Avening and Durham. Strafford suggests that Lessay is the origin of
                     rib vaulting, though Avening also has a claim, and the height at Durham is a further technical innovation. 
    (\\\\\\\)       The use of lintels and narrow semi-circular arch forms at Clonmacnoise, Glendalough, where there is a connection with Reefert church, and Iniscealtra,
                     dogtooth with narrow semi-circular arch forms at Monasterboice, and dogtooth arch forms at Kildare, Cashel, Kilmacduagh, Kells and St. Doulagh's
                     church  are typical of Anglo-Saxon architecture in England, see for example (o),(oo) and (+)-(++++++). Thomas Bell in "An Essay on the Origin and
                     Progress of Gothic Architecture with Reference to Irish Round Towers" mentions the use of herringbone, pilasters and a narrow semi-circular archform
                     at St. Finian's church, Clonmacnoise, and also the use of pilasters at Kildare, see (++++++) above and (##) here , herringbone is also used in the arches
                     of the church near Monasterboice. Small square forms, as at Cashel and the top window of Scattery Island can be found in the towers at Deerhurst,
                     Gloucestershire, at Much Dewchurch and at Wembury in Devon, see ([]), ([][]), and ([][][]). Thomas Bell also mentions them in one of the adjoining
                     churches at Monasterboice. The quadrilateral forms, found at Monasterboice tower, Kells, Glendalough and St. Doulagh's church, have an aesthetic
                     similarity to established Anglo-Saxon forms, which I have seen at Deerhurst in England. They can probably be found in Ireland from an earlier date,
                     see (!!!) here, but they still belong to the Anglo-Saxon period. Bell dates St. Doulagh's church to 818, in a dispute with Ledwich, who dates it to 993,
                     so, if Bell is correct, this might confirm the previous argument. The rectangular forms of Clones, Devenish, Clonmacnoise (McCarthy's) (8 mentioned
                     by Bell at the apex, which he calls small square, but there are smaller, see above)  and Kilmacduagh have antecedents in the churches of St. Fechin, Fore,
                     Ireland, (early 7th C (Petrie)) and Escomb church, Durham (late 7th C (Clapham)), see (!!!) again  here The conjunction of these rectangular forms in
                     England might suggest this was an Anglo-Saxon innovation in Ireland. A wider circular archform with chevron moulding and an 8-point flower can be
                     found at Kildare, together with an embattled parapet wall, again suggesting a later Anglo-Norman addition to an original Anglo-Saxon design. The conical
                     tops at Clonmacnoise, Glendalough, Iniscealtra, Cashel, Kilmacduagh, Devenish, and, the tallest at Ardmore, can be found at Jumieges in France, see
                     (\\\\\\), but the triangular saddleback towers are also common in England, for example at Syde and Ampney, see (####) here, so it is a debatable issue
                     as to whether these were built before 1066, or replaced by the Anglo-Normans after 1067. The round tower at Kilkenny had a conical top, which was
                     later removed by Cromwell. The round tower at Timahoe exhibits rectangular, dogtooth and a keyhole form in the windows, which may have been
                     influenced by earlier Anglo-Saxon or Carolingian designs, the front Romanesque window is Norman with exterior carvings, it is though to be mid 12th
                     century, which belongs to the Anglo-Norman period. The round tower at Cashel is conventionally dated to about 1100, but the dogtooth forms in the
                     windows at 30, 90, 150 and 180 degrees, and the rectangular form at 135 degrees, suggest an Anglo-Saxon influence.  Callahan in "The Mysterious 
                     Round Towers of Ireland. Low Energy Radio in Nature", explores the idea that the towers might have been part of a complex antenna, suggesting that
                     Anglo-Saxon scientific technology could have been quite advanced. Elizabeth Rees in "Celtic Saints of Ireland" notes the existence of a large church bell
                     at Cashel, surviving from the 9th century, which has an intricate, light, aperiodic tiling pattern, reminiscent of some geometric designs found in the "Book
                     of Kells". Rees suggests that Reefert church in Glendalough is 11th century, while St. Kevin's church there is 12th century, and the plaque on the belltower
                     gives a date 900-1200. The doorway of the Priest's House is clearly Anglo-Norman due to the chevron moulding and square headed jambs. There are a
                     number of quadrilateral doorways, at Reefert and the Priest's House, reminiscent of Anglo-Saxon forms in England. The doorway of St. Kevin's church is
                     in a simple Romanesque style, with a lintel, while one of the windows at Reefert is a keyhole shape, possibly with a Carolingian influence. The round tower
                     at Kilossy is mentioned by Bell, noting the unusual square base, this seems to be due to buttressing which was a later Norman innovation. He also mentions
                     the lancet windows at Christchurch, and some architectural features at Down Cathedral, which are similar in appearance to numerous examples in England
                     from the Lancet (Early English) and Perpendicular periods. The exterior vault at Timleague Abbey is pointed, in the style of the Lancet period, with the
                     outer walkway having a possible connection with an architectural innovation at Glasgow Cathedral, see (\\\\\\\\\). The height and shape is influenced by the
                     Anglo-Saxon use of tall narrow splay windows, for example at Aston Piper, see (####) here, and the Church of Sons of Nessan, Ireland's Eye, see above.
                     The battlements at Down may be derived from castle designs, possibly originating in Denmark.
(\\\\\\\\)          The fragment at Glastonbury Abbey is similar to a design at Valviscolo in Italy, after 1180, with the cross pointing vertically,but in the style of the Geometric

(\\\\\\\\\)         The exterior walkway at St. Kentigern's surrounds the nave and is copied at crypt level. The rectangular groundplan may be influenced by castles in Denmark,
                     and Scotland, for example at Asserbo and Kilchurn, see here
(A)                The pillar with the square lintel is reminiscent of the Anglo-Romanesque style, found at the church in Anagni, Italy. It may be from the remains of an earlier
                     Anglo-Norman church, connected to the  adjacent castle at Skenfrith. The Templar church at Garway, from the Norman period, which may have been used as a
                     fortification, faces Skenfrith on the border between England and Wales, and there may be a connection between the two. 

  (B)              The corner capital dates the archway at St. Andrew's to 1100-1140, see (*****), the archway at St. Oswald's is reminiscent of the style used at Cefalu
                     Cathedral, Sicily, but the use of an Anglo-Norman pier is typically English. Cefalu Cathedral was built after 1131, see (!) here, and the Anglo-Norman
                     style continued into the 12th century, see (*****) here.

  (C)              E.A.Fisher in "Anglo-Saxon Towers" notes "At Abernethy, a window near the cap has a deeply projecting semi-circular hood mould and, below plain
                     imposts, vertical pilaster strips alongside the jambs. This feature is clearly of Anglo-Saxon, not Irish, inspiration; it does not occur in Irish towers." The
                     pilaster strips can also be seen in the doorway, the heads of the pilaster strips in the window and the left shaft resemble the 3 shaft design at
                     Bradford-on-Avon, see (o). According to Historic Scotland, the tower was built at the end of the 11th century, which would place it within the
                     Anglo-Norman period, possibly there was an earlier tower from which the Anglo-Saxon features were added.   

  (D)              Dating from 1135, after the construction of Mont Sant Michel.                      

   (E)              The font design shows a mastery in the geometry of circles. Twelve opposing circular arcs make up six lozenges inscribed in a circle, the arcs passing
                      through the circle centre, and the centres of the arcs themselves positioned on the circle circumference at six equal angles. There may be an Anglo-Saxon
                      influence, as a similar pattern can be found at Brewardine, see (*****).

   (F)              The Agnus Dei symbol was used by the Knights Templars, as, for example at Valvisciolo Abbey cloisters in Italy, see here. In this case, the symbol is
                      also used in conjunction with the Norman grooved corner capital, suggesting that the two groups were related. It is well known that there was an 
                      exchange of ideas between the Knights Templar and Arabic countries in the Holy Land during the First Crusade, (1096-1099), on the subject of algebra.
                      The fact that the Normans were highly developed in geometry, see (E),  and the relationship with the Knights Templar, further supports the idea that
                      mathematics in England after the conquest was highly developed, in a form which we might currently refer to as algebraic or coordinate geometry.

   (G)              The use of herringbone masonry and all these forms except the splay window can be found in Ireland, see (///////).

   (H)              The lozenge design found in (E) is visible in a tiling pattern above the second and third doorways, there is further use of beakhead ornamentation, cross,
                       diamond and square wave patterns, as well as chevron marking. The first chancel pillar is decorated with a series of semicircles, cut out from a three
                       dimensional conical shape. The second chancel pillar carries the volute design, with an inflexion, similar to that used at Great Rissington, see (L) here.
                       It is interesting to note that volute capitals found in England are often wider than their counterparts in France. In all these cases, we see the characteristic
                       Norman fascination in geometry.    

    (I)               The carvings depict St. Peter holding the keys of heaven, presumably then the original church here was Anglo-Saxon, and a cross, similar to a Celtic cross
                       design, found at Mylor, reinforcing the idea that there were strong artistic relationships between Anglo-Saxon England and Ireland. 

    (J)               The style is Anglo-Norman due to the square headed riposts. The details of the pillars depict a plant leaf, possibly Cassia, which might have been used for
                        treating leprosy. Cassia can be used as an antibiotic due to the action of cinnamic acid on a bacterial membrane, see also here for the effects of other acids.
                        One of the details depicts an inflexionary spiral pattern, possibly inspired by a natural form, developing ideas in both Corinthian and Ionic architecture, see
                        also (L) here.